Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 17:04
Fungal diseases of cereals, millets, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, vegetables, plantation, fiber, spices and ornamental crops with special reference to etiology, disease cycle, perpetuation, epidemiology and management. Post-harvest diseases in transit and storage aflatoxins and other mycotoxins and their integrated management.
UNI T - I V : Common crafts and gears used for fish capture. Boat building material and demerits of wood, steel, aluminum, Ferro cement and FRP. Different types of fibres and netting materials and their characteristics, preservation of netting, parts of a trammel net, purse-scene, gill net and tuna long line. Food chemistry, fundamentals of microbiology. General methods of fish preservation and fishery by products. Canning and packaging techniques, processing and product development techniques.
Bifidobacterium lactis is predominantly found in the colon. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial on subjects receiving B. lactis or placebo for eight weeks found that B. lactis supported a balanced immune response in individuals hypersensitive to environmental allergens. Studies examining immune development and dietary supplementation with B. lactis have shown that it supports GI health by reducing intestinal permeability.
Industrial production of metabolites - organic acids, alcohols, antibiotics. Fermentor designs and types. Control of fermentation process - batch, feed batch and continuous. Downstream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single cell proteins and probiotics, hormones, biofertilizers, biopesticides. Phyto-remediation. Microbiology of raw and processed foods. Fermented food – vinegar, wine sauerkraut, pickles, cheese, yogurt. Food preservation, contamination and spoilage, food-borne illness and intoxication. Food as substrate for micro-organism, microflora of meat, fish, egg, fruits, vegetables, juices, flour, canned foods bio- degrading microbes, single cell protein for use as food and feed, bioactive food / probiotics
Natural pyrethroids, nicotine, rotenone, neem and karanj based botanical pesticides microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), agricultural antibiotics, semiochemicals insect pheromones-types and uses, insect hormones, insect growth regulators Plant hormones, phytoalexins, essential oils and their pest control properties advantages and limitations of natural pesticides juvenile hormones, juvenile hormone mimics and anti-JH chemosterilants, insect antifeedants, insect attractants and repellents microbial pesticides Application of plant biotechnology in crop protection, herbicide tolerant and insect resistant transgenic plants.
Role of biotechnology in diagnostics and vaccines, RNA electropherotyping. Probes - preparation of cDNA. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies. Application on monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal diseases. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Nucleic acid hybridization. Modern trends in vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their probable use in animal diseases. Bioinformatic tools in microbial research, Biosafety, Biosecurity, GMP and GLP.
The plant hormones upset the normal balance of cell growth, leading to the production of galls and thus to a nutrient-rich environment for the bacteria. The opines are unique amino acid derivatives, different from normal plant products, and the agrocinopines similarly are unique phosphorylated sugar derivatives. All these compounds can be used by the bacterium as the sole carbon and energy source, and because they are absent from normal plants they provide Agrobacterium with a unique food source that other bacteria cannot use.
chemical properties of pH, EC, atoms, molecules, colloids, clay mineral, major and trace elements, salinity and sodicity, cation exchange capacity, evaporation, evapotranspiration, water requirements of crop, plant growth process, soil and water conservation practices and tillage.
Veterinary fluid therapy with fluid, electrolyte, plasma expanders, packed cell transfusions, etc. Clinical assessment of their requirement and doses. Blood transfusion with blood groups in animals-their significance. Blood matching methods. Oxygen therapy.
Radiation preservation of milk and milk products. Theory and application of microwave heating, ohmic heating and high pressure processing. Immobilization of enzymes and their use in dairy and food industry. Theory of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and microfiltration techniques. Selection and types of membranes. Application of membrane technology in dairy and food industry. Fouling, cleaning and sanitization of membranes. Emulsions, foams and gels. Electrodialysis and ion exchange in dairy applications. Processing of cereals and legumes for incorporation in milk and milk products. Use of milk solids in bakery and confectionery products. Application of biotechnology in dairy industry.